Volume 4, Issue 3, September 2019, Page: 35-41
Assessment of Human Health Risk of Potential Toxic Metals in Herbal Concoction Teas Commonly Consumed in Nigeria
Solomon Sunday Durodola, Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Olawole Ayinuola, Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Odunayo Timothy Ore, Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Oladotun Wasiu Makinde, Centre for Energy and Research Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Received: Aug. 31, 2019;       Accepted: Sep. 20, 2019;       Published: Sep. 30, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.wjac.20190403.12      View  393      Downloads  81
Concentrations of potential toxic metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, As, Fe and Mn) were determined in herbal concoction teas commonly consumed in Nigeria using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Results revealed that Fe had the highest concentration with a mean value of 13.136 ± 0.195 µg/g, while As had the least mean concentration (0.043 ± 0.006 µg/g). Pollution index (PI) result indicated that the teas were contaminated with Cu (PI value > 1) while it was clear of contamination by the other investigated metals. Cluster analysis showed close inter-element relationships between the investigated metals, indicating similar chemical properties and/or genetic origin. Correlation matrix showed that positive and significant correlations existed between between Zn/Cr, Ni/Cr, Co/Cr, Fe/Cu, Mn/Cu, Ni/Zn, Co/Zn, Co/Ni and Mn/Fe, indicating chemical affinity. Estimated daily intake, target hazard quotient and cancer risk showed that there was no health risk associated with the consumption of the herbal concoction teas. Relative risk indicated that the highest concern is from the levels of Co in the teas. The study concluded that consumption of the teas may not pose risk to human health at the current levels of the metals, but should be consumed moderately to prevent bioaccumulation of the metals.
AAS, Health Risk, Herbal Concoction Teas, Pollution, Toxic Element
To cite this article
Solomon Sunday Durodola, Olawole Ayinuola, Odunayo Timothy Ore, Oladotun Wasiu Makinde, Assessment of Human Health Risk of Potential Toxic Metals in Herbal Concoction Teas Commonly Consumed in Nigeria, World Journal of Applied Chemistry. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2019, pp. 35-41. doi: 10.11648/j.wjac.20190403.12
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Fabricant, D. S. and Farnsworth, N. R. 2001. “The value of plants used in traditional medicine for drug discovery,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 69–75.
Sahoo, N., Manchikanti, P. and Dey, S. 2010. “Herbal drugs: standards and regulation,” Fitoterapia, vol. 81, no. 6, pp. 462–471.
World Health Organization (WHO), 2002. Traditional Medicine Strategy (2002–2005), World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
Duffus J. H. 2002. "Heavy metals" a meaningless term? (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and applied chemistry. 74 (5): 793-807.
Kim, M. K., Kim, W. L., Jung, G. B., Yun, S. G. 2001. Safety assessment of heavy metals in agricultural products of Korea. Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture. 20: 169– 332 174.
Duruibe, J. O., Ogwuegbu, M. O. C. and Egwurugwu, J. N. 2007. Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects. International Journal of Physical Sciences. 2 (5), 112-118.
Ernst, E. 2002. “Toxic heavy metals and undeclared drugs in Asian herbal medicines,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 136–139.
Okareh, O., Oyelakin, T., and Ariyo, O. 2018. Phytochemical Properties and Heavy Metal Contents of Commonly Consumed Alcoholic Beverages Flavoured with Herbal Extract in Nigeria. Beverages. 4 (3), 60. doi: 10.3390/beverages4030060.
Ogner, G., Opem, M., Remedios, G. and Sjorlie, B. 1991. The Chemical analysis program of the Norwegian Forest Research Institute, As, Norway, 224-330.
Oyewole, F. G. and Adebiyi, F. M. 2017. Total and speciation analyses of heavy metals in the sand fraction of Nigerian oil sands for human and ecological risk assessment. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal. 23 (8): 2046-2068.
USEPA 1989. Risk assessment guidance for superfund, Human Health Evaluation Manual Part A, Interim Final vol. I, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC.
USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) 2015. Regional Screening Level (RSL) Summary Table, November 2015.
USEPA, 2000. Agency, U. S. E. P. Supplementary guidance for conducting health risk assessment of chemical mixtures.
Chien, L. C., Hung, T. C., Choang, K. Y., Yeh, C. Y., Meng, P. J., Shieh, M. J., and Han, B. C. 2002. Daily intake of TBT, Cu, Zn, Cd and As for fishermen in Taiwan. Science of the Total Environment. 285, 177–185.
Peng, Q., Nunes, L. M., Greenfield, B. K., Dang, F., and Zhong, H. 2016. Are Chinese consumers at risk due to exposure to metals in crayfish? A bioaccessibility-adjusted probabilistic risk assessment. Environment International. 88, 261–268.
Shaheen, N., Irfan, N. M., Khan, I. N., Islam, S., Islam, M. S., and Ahmed, M. K. 2016. Presence of heavy metals in fruits and vegetables: health risk implications in Bangladesh. Chemosphere. 152, 431–438.
Saha, N., Mollah, M., Alam, M., and Rahman, M. S. 2016. Seasonal investigation of heavy metals in marine fishes captured from the bay of Bengal and the implications for human health risk assessment. Food Control. 70, 110–118.
Yu, Y., Wang, X., Yang, D., Lei, B., Zhang, X., and Zhang, X. 2014. Evaluation of human health risks posed by carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic multiple contaminants associated with consumption of fish from Taihu Lake, China. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 69, 86–93.
World Health Organization, WHO. 2006. Guidelines for Assessing Quality of Herbal Medicines with Reference to Contaminants and Residues, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
Karayil Sudha, Bhavani and Vivek Ch. 2014. Heavy metal analysis from traditionally used herb Ceropegia juncea (Roxb.). IOSR Journal of Pharmacy. 4 (12): 07-11.
Browse journals by subject