Volume 5, Issue 2, June 2020, Page: 34-40
The Sources, Toxicity, Determination of Heavy Metals and Their Removal Techniques from Drinking Water
Muhammad Amjad, Department of Chemistry, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan
Shabbir Hussain, Department of Chemistry, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan
Kashif Javed, Department of Chemistry, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan
Abdul Rehman Khan, Department of Chemistry, Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan
Muhammad Shahjahan, Department of Biotechnology, Virtual University of Pakistan, Lahore, Pakistan
Received: May 5, 2020;       Accepted: May 25, 2020;       Published: Jul. 13, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.wjac.20200502.14      View  261      Downloads  140
Heavy metals such as Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Aluminum (Al), Barium (Ba), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium( Mg), Lead (Pb), Manganese (Mn), Silver( Ag), Sodium (Na), and Selenium (Se) their excess contamination in drinking and irrigation water causes toxicity in living organisms. Their major sources are from different industries as dying, textiles, leather, mining, pesticides, plastic, wood, and pharmaceuticals. The industrial processes release these metals in air, surface water, soil, groundwater, and crops and ultimately target human beings. Groundwater contamination occurs through the anthropogenic activities by man-made products such as gasoline, oil, road salts, mining, pesticides, and fertilizers, etc. discharge into groundwater. Copper, Zinc, and Selenium are heavy metals that are needed in trace amounts for humans. On the other hand, some other metals like Lead, Arsenic, and Mercury are extremely dangerous for human beings even if consumed in small amounts. There is a big challenge to remove heavy metals from drinking water. Different diseases like nervous system damage, kidney failure, blood pressure, hypertension, diabetes, growth inhibition are mostly caused by their contamination in drinking water. Various modern and conventional techniques are used for the determination of heavy metals and water treatment.
Drinking Water, Heavy Metals, Toxic, Sources, Diseases
To cite this article
Muhammad Amjad, Shabbir Hussain, Kashif Javed, Abdul Rehman Khan, Muhammad Shahjahan, The Sources, Toxicity, Determination of Heavy Metals and Their Removal Techniques from Drinking Water, World Journal of Applied Chemistry. Vol. 5, No. 2, 2020, pp. 34-40. doi: 10.11648/j.wjac.20200502.14
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Annadurai, G., R. Juang, and D. Lee, Adsorption of heavy metals from water using banana and orange peels. Water Science and Technology, 2003. 47 (1): p. 185-190.
Ahuja, S., Handbook of water purity and quality. 2009: Academic press.
Babel, S. and T. A. Kurniawan, Cr (VI) removal from synthetic wastewater using coconut shell charcoal and commercial activated carbon modified with oxidizing agents and/or chitosan. Chemosphere, 2004. 54 (7): p. 951-967.
Barakat, M., New trends in removing heavy metals from industrial wastewater. Arabian journal of chemistry, 2011. 4 (4): p. 361-377.
Järup, L., Hazards of heavy metal contamination. British medical bulletin, 2003. 68 (1): p. 167-182.
Arora, M., et al., Heavy metal accumulation in vegetables irrigated with water from different sources. Food chemistry, 2008. 111 (4): p. 811-815.
Ali, H., E. Khan, and M. A. Sajad, Phytoremediation of heavy metals—Concepts and applications. Chemosphere, 2013. 91 (7): p. 869-881.
Do, J.-S. and M.-L. Chen, Decolourization of dye-containing solutions by electrocoagulation. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 1994. 24 (8): p. 785-790.
Deepali, K. and K. Gangwar, Metals concentration in textile and tannery effluents, associated soils and ground water. NY Sci J, 2010. 3 (4): p. 82-9.
Lakherwal, D., Adsorption of heavy metals: a review. International journal of environmental research and development, 2014. 4 (1): p. 41-48.
Diarra, I. and S. Prasad, The current state of heavy metal pollution in Pacific Island Countries: a review. Applied Spectroscopy Reviews, 2020: p. 1-25.
Fu, Z. and S. Xi, The effects of heavy metals on human metabolism. Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, 2020. 30 (3): p. 167-176.
Jaishankar, M., et al., Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdisciplinary toxicology, 2014. 7 (2): p. 60-72.
Saha, R., R. Nandi, and B. Saha, Sources and toxicity of hexavalent chromium. Journal of Coordination Chemistry, 2011. 64 (10): p. 1782-1806.
Shanker, A. K., et al., Chromium toxicity in plants. Environment International, 2005. 31 (5): p. 739-753.
Zhitkovich, A., Chromium in drinking water: sources, metabolism, and cancer risks. Chemical research in toxicology, 2011. 24 (10): p. 1617-1629.
Nordstrom, D. K., Worldwide occurrences of arsenic in ground water. 2002, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Sadler, R., et al., Soil and water contamination by arsenic from a tannery waste. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 1994. 78 (1-2): p. 189-198.
Garelick, H., et al., Arsenic pollution sources, in Reviews of Environmental Contamination Volume 197. 2009, Springer. p. 17-60.
Rao, S. M. and P. Mamatha, Water quality in sustainable water management. Current science, 2004: p. 942-947.
Flaten, T. P., Aluminium as a risk factor in Alzheimer’s disease, with emphasis on drinking water. Brain Research Bulletin, 2001. 55 (2): p. 187-196.
Driscoll, C. T. and R. D. Letterman, Chemistry and fate of Al (III) in treated drinking water. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 1988. 114 (1): p. 21-37.
CRAPPER, M., C. M. DR, and D. BONI, Aluminium in human brain disease: an overview. 1980.
Davison, A., et al., Water supply aluminium concentration, dialysis dementia, and effect of reverse-osmosis water treatment. The Lancet, 1982. 320 (8302): p. 785-787.
Srinivasan, P., T. Viraraghavan, and K. Subramanian, Aluminium in drinking water: An overview. Water Sa, 1999. 25 (1): p. 47-55.
Brenniman, G., et al., High barium levels in public drinking water and its association with elevated blood pressure. Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal, 1981. 36 (1): p. 28-32.
Brenniman, G., et al., Cardiovascular disease death rates in communities with elevated levels of barium in drinking water. Environmental research, 1979. 20 (2): p. 318-324.
Kravchenko, J., et al., A review of the health impacts of barium from natural and anthropogenic exposure. Environmental geochemistry and health, 2014. 36 (4): p. 797-814.
Kožíšek, F., Health significance of drinking water calcium and magnesium. National Institute of Public Health: Prague, Czech Republic, 2003: p. 29.
Yang, C. Y., et al., Calcium, magnesium, and nitrate in drinking water and gastric cancer mortality. Japanese Journal of Cancer Research, 1998. 89 (2): p. 124-130.
Sengupta, P., Potential health impacts of hard water. International journal of preventive medicine, 2013. 4 (8): p. 866.
Fewtrell, L., D. Kay, and S. MacGill, A review of the science behind drinking water standards for copper. International journal of environmental health research, 2001. 11 (2): p. 161-167.
Sparks, D. L. and B. G. Schreurs, Trace amounts of copper in water induce β-amyloid plaques and learning deficits in a rabbit model of Alzheimer's disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2003. 100 (19): p. 11065-11069.
Gaetke, L. M. and C. K. Chow, Copper toxicity, oxidative stress, and antioxidant nutrients. Toxicology, 2003. 189 (1): p. 147-163.
RE, T., Lead in drinking water. 1967.
Landrigan, P. J. and A. C. Todd, Lead poisoning. Western Journal of Medicine, 1994. 161 (2): p. 153.
Zhang, L. and M. H. Wong, Environmental mercury contamination in China: Sources and impacts. Environment International, 2007. 33 (1): p. 108-121.
Sahu, O. and P. Chaudhari, Review on chemical treatment of industrial waste water. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 2013. 17 (2): p. 241-257.
Charerntanyarak, L., Heavy metals removal by chemical coagulation and precipitation. Water Science and Technology, 1999. 39 (10-11): p. 135-138.
Gunatilake, S., Methods of removing heavy metals from industrial wastewater. Methods, 2015. 1 (1).
Gupta, V. K., et al., Chemical treatment technologies for waste-water recycling—an overview. Rsc Advances, 2012. 2 (16): p. 6380-6388.
James, L., Volumetric Determination of Chromium and Nickel in Same Solution. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Analytical Edition, 1931. 3 (3): p. 258-259.
Soylak, M., et al., Chemical analysis of drinking water samples from Yozgat, Turkey. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 2002. 11 (2): p. 151-156.
DeZuane, J., Handbook of drinking water quality. 1997: John Wiley & Sons.
Garten, V. A., et al., Method and apparatus for analysis of water. 1979, Google Patents.
Li, X.-G., Q. Dou, and M.-R. Huang, Titrimetric analysis of total mercury ions including mercury (I) ions. Monatshefte für Chemie-Chemical Monthly, 2008. 139 (10): p. 1157-1162.
Boettner, E. A. and F. I. Grunder, Water analysis by atomic absorption and flame emission spectroscopy. Trace Inorganics in Water, 1968. 73.
Sharma, B. and S. Tyagi, Simplification of metal ion analysis in fresh water samples by atomic absorption spectroscopy for laboratory students. Journal of Laboratory Chemical Education, 2013. 1 (3): p. 54-58.
Murray, R., D. J. Miller, and K. Kryc, Analysis of major and trace elements in rocks, sediments, and interstitial waters by inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). 2000.
Browse journals by subject